Wednesday, July 4, 2012


By Joanna Mae Macrohon, Abner Loriaga

The theory of Nursing as Caring is a general or grand nursing theory that offers a broad philosophical framework with practical implications for transforming practice. (Boykin, et al., 2003). From the perspective of Nursing as Caring, the focus and aim of nursing as a discipline of knowledge and a professional service is “nurturing persons living caring and growing in caring” (Boykin and Schoenhofer, 2001). The theory is grounded in fundamental assumptions that (1) to be human is to be caring and (2) the activities of the discipline and profession of nursing coalesce in coming to know persons as caring and nurturing them as persons living and growing in caring.(Tomey and Allingood, Nursing Theories, 2006).

        Formed intention and authentic presence guide the nurse in selecting and organizing empirically based knowledge for practical use in each unique and unfolding nursing situations. Because caring is uniquely created in the moment in response to a uniquely experienced call for nursing caring, there can be no prescribed, expected outcome of nursing as caring since responses can be highly individualized and varied. However, the caring that is experienced by the nursed and others in the nursing situation can be described and valued. Caring in nursing is altruistic, an active expression of love is the intentional and embodied recognition of value and connectedness. Although caring is not unique to nursing, it is uniquely lived in nursing. The understanding of nursing as a discipline and a profession uniquely focus on caring as its central value, its primary interest and the direct intention of practice.

       The view that caring preludes the transformation of nursing practices exposes and demonstrates the value of nursing in the evidenced-based practice milieu of modern health care. Evidence supports associations between professional nursing and quality of health care outcomes. Conceptual and theoretical linkages in the model are identified and ties to indicators providing logical consistency needed for validation. This helps to translate the hidden work of nursing into objective work that can be tested. Scientifically demonstrating its worth will advance professional nursing while simultaneously improving quality of health care. Nursing sensitive outcomes reflects an established link to the availability and quality of professional nursing services which may include variables such as, health status, patient safety, satisfaction and comfort , increased in knowledge and quality of life.


       Anne Boykin and Sarvina Schoenhofer’s Theory of Caring as Nursing gives emphasis in the fundamental idea that all persons are caring; that to be a human means to be caring; and that being a person is living in caring. Caring is innate to an individual and that a person lives their lives growing the capacity of caring.


       Boykin and Schoenhofer’s theory did not fully describe health but then it is believed that over
all health is achieved with the application of caring in all matters that deals with the patient. Since this Theory of Caring is a grand theory, it can be used in collaboration with other theories that further help a patient to improve the quality of nursing care given to them so that they can achieve overall health.


        The Theory of Caring as Nursing suggest that a person should have an environment that radiates a sense of nurturing atmosphere which helps an individual to grow in caring while revealing the richness of nursing.


        Nursing, based on the Theory of Caring as Nursing, is said to be a discipline and a profession. It focuses on the idea of nursing as being grounded by caring and that nursing revolves around caring people not just physically but in all aspects as well. The theory also shows that the essence of caring is most essential in the process of providing a holistic care needed by the patient.

1 comment:

  1. The basic text for understanding the theory of Nursing As Caring, Nursing As Caring: A Model for Transforming Practice, by Boykin and Schoenhofer (2001) is now available for free download at!our-books/c1zl5